so america WILL build the fastest computer. right now the fastest one is CHINESE NOT AMERICAN WOW

Supercomputers: Obama orders world’s fastest computer

By Chris BaraniukTechnology reporter

The president has asked US scientists to build the fastest supercomputerThe president has asked US scientists to build the fastest supercomputer

President Obama has signed an executive order calling for the US to build the world’s fastest computer by 2025.

The supercomputer would be 20 times quicker than the current leading machine, which is in China.

It would be capable of making one quintillion (a billion billion) calculations per second – a figure which is known as one exaflop.

A body called the National Strategic Computing Initiative (NSCI) will be set up to research and build the computer.

The US is seeking the new supercomputer, significantly faster than today’s models, to perform complex simulations, aid scientific research and national security projects.

It is hoped the machine would help to analyse weather data for more accurate forecasts or assist in cancer diagnoses by analysing X-ray images.

A blog post on the White House website also suggests it could allow NASA scientists to model turbulence, which might enable the design of more streamlined aircraft without the need for extensive wind tunnel testing.

Such a computer would be called an exascale machine.

Bigger models

Richard Kenway at the University of Edinburgh says he thinks the plan is "spot on" in terms of strategy, bringing together both the ambition to develop new hardware and also improved analysis of big data.

He explained the computer could aid the development of personalised medicines, tailored to specific individuals.

"Today, drugs are designed for the average human and they work OK for some people but not others," he told the BBC.

"The real challenge in precision medicine is to move from designing average drugs to designing drugs for the individual because you can know their genome and their lifestyle."

There could also be benefits in long-term climate modelling, according to Mark Parsons at the Edinburgh Parallel Computing Centre (EPCC).

Currently, climate scientists attempt to model how the Earth’s climate will evolve in coming years, but the accuracy of these predictions is severely limited.

The Chinese currently own the world's fastest computer.The Chinese currently own the world’s fastest computer.

Today’s fastest supercomputer, the Tianhe-2 in China’s National Computer Centre, Guangzhou, performs at 33.86 petaflops (quadrillions of calculations per second), almost twice as fast as the second-quickest machine, which is American.

For Parsons, the latest US initiative is a clear attempt to challenge the dominance of the Chinese in this field.

"The US has woken up to the fact that if it wants to remain in the race it will have to invest," he told the BBC.

£60m electricity bill

Both Kenway and Parsons point out that the challenges of building an exascale computer are not trivial and would require years of research and development.

Chief among the obstacles, according to Parsons, is the need to make computer components much more power efficient. Even then, the electricity demands would be gargantuan.

"I’d say they’re targeting around 60 megawatts, I can’t imagine they’ll get below that," he commented. "That’s at least £60m a year just on your electricity bill."

Efforts to construct an exascale computer are not entirely new.

Recently, IBM, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON) and the University of Groningen announced plans to build one to analyse data from the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) radio telescope project.

SKA will be built in Australia and South Africa by the early 2020s.

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The Euro Is in Deep Trouble

Jonathan Story, INSEAD Emeritus Professor of International Political Economy | July 14, 2015





Last-minute agreements may have prevented a “Grexit”—for the moment—but the Eurozone’s troubles are only likely to worsen.

Agreement, in principle at least, has saved Greece from leaving the euro. It now has to pass reforms demanded by the Eurozone by Wednesday. But first, some facts are warranted about how far Greece has actually come.

Of all the Euroland countries, Greece is the country which has implemented the deepest adjustments in terms of budget cuts. Between 2009, and the onset of Euroland’s crisis, and end 2014, the Greek government deficit has fallen from -15.2% GDP to -2.7%. Minus interest payments, Greece is running a structural surplus.

This represents a cut of 12.5 points in the GDP, a colossal adjustment. By comparison, Spain’s government spend fell 5.1 points, Lithuania by 8.6 andEstonia by 2.3. Overall, Greece has slashed government spend by €47 billion.

Looking at the Greek statistics a bit closer, Athens is in the top league of Europe’s cutters. Ireland is number one, reducing government spend from 47.6% GDP to 36%; Greece from 53.9% GDP to 44.2%; and Lithuania from 43.7% to 34.1%.

These figures would suggest that the EU institutions will only be satisfied if Athens reduces expenditures to, say, the level of Ireland. In fact, the Greek economy has shrunk 27 GDP points, an unprecedented contraction since the depression of the 1930s.

Furthermore, Greece is the only Euroland member state to have lowered the minimum wage from €689 to €586 a month. It has done the most to make its labour market flexible and has seen wage levels fall by a quarter.

Greece compared

Other member states that have forced through austerity imposed by Germany have experienced a turnaround, albeit often with very high levels of unemployment as in Spain, Portugal and Italy.

The small Baltic states, after a deep recession, rebounded in 2011 with growth rates of 6-8% GDP, with Estonia growing at 4.5% in 2014.

Ireland and Spain resumed growth in 2014. Both countries have a significant industrial sector, are host to a wide spectrum of multinational corporations, have moved into current account surplus, and have a strong export sector. Ireland’s per capita exports are 16 times greater than those of Greece.

In mid-2014, there were some indications of a turnaround in Greece, but by the end of the year, these disappeared. Germany’s Finance Minister Wolfgang Schäuble argued that the Greek economy was turning the corner when the Greeks voted in a Syriza government, turning a promising situation for Greece into a disaster.

This is disingenuous. The first bailout in 2010 was aimed at topping up German and French banks, not the Greek economy. Greece, though, was saddled with the bank’s debts.

Greek imports have shrunk by 45% while 44% of the population is below the poverty level. As the economy has shrunk, the Greek debt has soared. From the very start of the crisis it was an open secret that Greece could never repay the debts loaded onto it. The allegation that Athens has implemented little to nothing is plain wrong.

Prime Minister Alexis Tspiras was not alone when he told the European Parliament that “my country has become a laboratory for austerity and the experiment has failed”. Two Nobel Prize winners, Paul Krugman and Joseph Stiglitz, as well as the IMF, are of the same opinion.

Revenge is sweet

So what is happening? One explanation is that the German and Dutch Finance Ministers, joined by the Commission and the ECB, are happy to take revenge on a small member state that has made so much trouble for five months, and worse, has made them look foolish.

Germany has been throughout the five-year crisis at the centre of an austerity coalition – including Finland, The Netherlands, and countries like Slovakia and the Baltics – that resent what they consider to be Greek begging-bowl tactics.

Last week, the ECB, now highly politicised, reportedly strong-armed Greece into imposing capital controls, a measure said to be a first step to ejecting Greece from the Euro.

Berlin’s Finance Ministry produced a plan outlining two options: either the government submits to drastic measures such as placing €50bn of its assets in a trust fund to pay off its debts, and have Brussels take over its public administration, or Athens agrees to a “time-out” solution where it would be ejected from the Eurozone for a five-year period.

Last Sunday, the Syriza government won a referendum handsomely rejecting the bailout conditions which it is now prepared to sign up to. This involves a raft of spending cuts and tax rises to secure a new three-year rescue plan worth around €75-100 billion. Tspiras has not followed advice that he should be prepared to exit the Euro.

Why, having defied the powers that be in the EU, has Tspiras suddenly got cold feet? His answer is that he won a mandate to negotiate a better deal, and not to take Greece out of the Euro.

Whatever the explanation, Schäuble instantly seized the opportunity to humiliate Tspiras. There was a savage taste of revenge in Schäuble’s remarks that Athens was now accepting measures that it had dubbed humiliating a week earlier.

“We will certainly not be able to rely on promises,” Schäuble is quoted as saying. “In recent months, during the last few hours, the trust has been destroyed in incomprehensible ways.”

It is more to the point that German-imposed austerity on Euroland is the prime cause for Syriza’s electoral victory in February 2015.

Syriza, the “Euro-communist” sister to Greece’s un-reformed, pro-Moscow Communist party, the KKE, won over 36% of the vote; Golden Dawn, an outright fascist party, received over 6% of the vote, and the KKE over 5%. In other words, 48% of the votes in the February elections went to parties of the far left or far right.

The same situation beckons in France, where Marine le Pen of the National Front is making a serious bid for the Presidency.

Striking similarities

There are other similarities between Greece and France. France has over 5 million civil servants, benefitting from all sorts of special privileges. Greece has 750,000. In 2012, Athens promised their number would be reduced by 2015 through attrition by 150,000.

Little has changed since. Syriza, like President Hollande’s government, has stalled on slicing the bureaucracy. In both countries, the political parties of the left have their alliances with the public sector unions.

Syriza has promised a crackdown on tax avoidance, something the former ruling parties, PASOK and New Democracy, were conspicuously unable to implement. Hollande is making similar noises.

Tspiras has been asking for an EU growth package, involving a 30% haircut for Greek creditors, and accompanied by major EU-promoted investment. Were this to happen, the private labour market, which has borne the brunt of the recession, would pick up and generate the jobs required to start reforms of the public sector.

In other words, with unemployment at 27%, Tspiras has been hoping for a private-sector boom to help him deal with his public-sector union allies and competitors.

But Djisselbloem and Schäuble insist on more austerity, supervised directly in imperial fashion by EU institutions. What they seem to forget is that the government sector is in the hands of hardcore trade unionists, ready to knee-cap anyone talking of cuts. If EU austerity in its new form were to be implemented, EU bureaucrats would need 24-hour protection for themselves and their families.

The alternative is to kick Greece out of the Euro for a period of five years. France is opposed, and President Hollande has sent his technocrats to Athens to help draft Greece’s last, last minute proposals. As German commentators have noted, they do not deal with the public sector.

This cannot be a surprise. France has the most bloated public sector in the EU. Hollande was elected to protect it. That is why his one major policy is to raise taxes further. The result is evident in France’s wretched economic performance.

The wider significance of the Greek saga

For the moment, France is clinging to the Euro, but like Greece is failing to deliver the reforms which would make the Euro a success.

What would these reforms entail?

· A massive reduction in the size of the French government.

· Liberalisation of hire and fire rules, thereby freeing up the labour market.

Question: What is the chance of these conditions being met in France?

Answer: Zero.

The Euro is in deep trouble.

Jonathan Story is Emeritus Professor of International Political Economy at INSEAD.

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Import or export text (.txt or .csv) files

There are two ways to import data from a text file by using Microsoft Office Excel: You can open the text file in Excel, or you can import the text file as an external data range. To export data from Excel to a text file, use the Save Ascommand.

There are two commonly used text file formats:

  • Delimited text files (.txt), in which the TAB character (ASCII character code 009) typically separates each field of text.
  • Comma separated values text files (.csv), in which the comma character (,) typically separates each field of text.

You can change the separator character that is used in both delimited and .csv text files. This may be necessary to make sure that the import or export operation works the way that you want it to.


What do you want to do?

Import a text file by opening it in Excel

Import a text file by connecting to it

Export data to a text file by saving it

Change the delimiter that is used in a text file

Change the separator in all .csv text files

Import a text file by opening it in Excel

You can open a text file that you created in another program as an Excel workbook by using the Open command. Opening a text file in Excel does not change the format of the file — you can see this in the Excel title bar, where the name of the file retains the text file name extension (for example, .txt or .csv).

  1. Click the Microsoft Office Button Office button image, and then click Open.

    The Open dialog box appears.

  2. On a computer that is running Windows Vista
    • In the list, select Text Files.

      On a computer that is running Microsoft Windows XP

    • In the Files of type list, select Text Files.
  3. On a computer that is running Windows Vista
    • In the Address bar, locate and double-click the text file that you want to open.

      On a computer that is running Microsoft Windows XP

    • In the Look in list, locate and double-click the text file that you want to open.
    • If the file is a text file (.txt), Excel starts the Import Text Wizard.

      Follow the instructions in the Text Import Wizard. Click Help button image for more information about using the Text Import Wizard or see Text Import Wizard. When you are done with the steps in the wizard, clickFinish to complete the import operation.

    • If the file is a .csv file, Excel automatically opens the text file and displays the data in a new workbook.

      NOTE When Excel opens a .csv file, it uses the current default data format settings to interpret how to import each column of data. If you want more flexibility in converting columns to different data formats, you can use the Import Text Wizard. For example, the format of a data column in the .csv file may be MDY, but Excel’s default data format is YMD, or you want to convert a column of numbers that contains leading zeros to text so you can preserve the leading zeros. To run the Import Text Wizard, you can change the file name extension from .csv to .txt before you open it, or you can Import a text file by connecting to it.

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Import a text file by connecting to it

You can import data from a text file into an existing worksheet as an external data range.

  1. Click the cell where you want to put the data from the text file.
  2. On the Data tab, in the Get External Data group, click From Text.

    The Get External Data group on the Data tab

  3. On a computer that is running Windows Vista
    • In the Address bar, locate and double-click the text file that you want to import.

      On a computer that is running Microsoft Windows XP

    • In the Look in list, locate and double-click the text file that you want to import.

      Follow the instructions in the Text Import Wizard. Click Help button image for more information about using the Text Import Wizard, or see Text Import Wizard. When you are done with the steps in the wizard, clickFinish to complete the import operation.

  4. In the Import Data dialog box, do the following:
    • Optionally, click Properties to set refresh, formatting, and layout options for the imported data.
    • Under Where do you want to put the data?, do one of the following:
      • To return the data to the location that you selected, click Existing worksheet.
      • To return the data to the upper-left corner of a new worksheet, click New worksheet.
  5. Click OK.

    Excel puts the external data range in the location that you specify.

If Excel does not convert a column of data to the format that you want, you can convert the data after you import it. For more information, see the following Help topics:

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Export data to a text file by saving it

You can convert an Excel worksheet to a text file by using the Save As command.

  1. Click the Microsoft Office Button Office button image, and then click Save As.

    The Save As dialog box appears.

  2. In the Save as type box, choose the text file format for the worksheet.

    For example, click Text (Tab delimited) or CSV (Comma delimited).

    NOTE The different formats support different feature sets. For more information about the feature sets that are supported by the different text file formats, see Excel formatting and features that are not transferred to other file formats.

  3. On a computer that is running Windows Vista
    • In the Address bar, browse to the location where you want to save the new text file, and then click Save.

      On a computer that is running Microsoft Windows XP

    • In the Save in box, browse to the location where you want to save the new text file, and then click Save.
  4. A dialog box appears, reminding you that only the current worksheet will be saved to the new file. If you are certain that the current worksheet is the one that you want to save as a text file, click OK. You can save other worksheets as separate text files by repeating this procedure for each worksheet.
  5. A second dialog box appears, reminding you that your worksheet may contain features that are not supported by text file formats. If you are interested only in saving the worksheet data into the new text file, click Yes. If you are unsure and would like to know more about which Excel features are not supported by text file formats, click Help for more information.

For more information about saving files in other formats, see Save a workbook in another file format.

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Change the delimiter that is used in a text file

If you use the Text Import Wizard to import a text file, you can change the delimiter that is used for a delimited text file from a TAB character to another character in Step 2 of the Text Import Wizard. In this step, you can also change the way that consecutive delimiters, such as consecutive quotation marks, are handled.

For more information about how to use the Text Import Wizard, see Import a text file by opening it or Text Import Wizard.

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Change the separator in all .csv text files

  1. In Microsoft Windows, click the Start button, and then click Control Panel.
  2. Open the Regional and Language Options dialog box.
  3. Do one of the following:
    • In Windows Vista, click the Formats tab, and then click Customize this format.
    • In Windows XP, click the Regional Options tab, and then click Customize.
  4. Type a new separator in the List separator box.
  5. Click OK twice.

NOTE After you change the list separator character for your computer, all programs use the new character as a list separator. You can change the character back to the default character by following the same procedure.

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